Synchrotrons - Where
ALBA is a third generation synchrotron light source facility, designed to provide a high brilliance photon beam. It is co-financed by the Spanish Government and the regional Government of Catalonia, and managed by the Consortium for the Construction, Equipment and Exploitation of the Synchrotron Light Laboratory (CELLS). The accelerator complex consists of a 100 MeV Linear Accelerator (LINAC), a Booster that ramps the electron beam energy up to 3 GeV and a Storage Ring. Currently, ALBA has 8 beamlines in operation.The eight beamlines are as follows:
- Non-Crystalline Diffraction (NCD) for SAXS and WAXS experiments
- Macromolecular Crystallography (XALOC)
- Photoemission spectroscopy and microscopy(CIRCE)
- X-ray absorption spectroscopy (CLAESS)
- High-Resolution Powder Diffraction (MSPD)
- X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (BOREAS)
- X-ray cryo-microscopy (MISTRAL)
- Infrared Microspectroscopy beamline (MIRAS)
ASTRID2 is the new third-generation low-emittance light source at Aarhus University, Denmark.
The ASTRID storage ring was a second generation synchrotron radiation source, which started operation in the early nineties and is now used solely as a booster for the new ASTRID2 ring. Many of the beam lines from ASTRID have been upgraded and transferred to ASTRID2 and two completely new beam lines have been constructed and are now in operation. A new beam line, AU-SGM4, is currently under construction.
Photons are available from the infrared to soft x-ray regime, and beam lines and end-stations cover use in areas from biology to physics. Techniques include, for example, linear/circular dichroism for molecular biology and angular resolved photo emission spectroscopy.
A user selection panel assigns beam time to selected proposals once per year, based on scientific merit. To view the current beam status in ASTRID2 please visit this link
BESSY II is a third generation storage ring in operation since 1999; it provides ultrabright photon beams from the long wavelength Terahertz region to hard X-rays with complete control of the energy range and the polarization of the radiation. The facility is operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. A LINAC (LINear ACcelerator).
With its more than 50 beamlines, BESSY II offers a multi-faceted mixture of experimental opportunities: unique undulators provide circular and rotating-linear polarization; world record energy resolution (e.g. > 100.000 at 60 eV) has been demonstrated by BESSY II beamlines. Experimental facilities include x-ray microscopy, x-ray polarimetry, spectromicroscopy, high-resolution photon and electron spectroscopy, nanotechnology (e.g. x-ray lithography), and pump-probe spectroscopy with temporal resolution ranging from 50 ps down to 100 fs at the unique slicing facility.
The combination of brightness and time resolution makes BESSY II the ultimate microscope for space and time, since both femtosecond time and picometer spatial resolutions are available.
DAΦNE-Light is the Synchrotron Radiation Facility at the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The radiation source DAΦNE is an electron-positron collider that works at 0.51 GeV with beam currents higher than 1 A in operation since 1998. DAΦNE has a full energy injector system consisting of a 60 m long LINAC (LINear ACcelerator) and an accumulator that is a small 0.51GeV storage ring. Electron beam injection is performed in decay mode with frequent injections. The photon energy range produced by the DAΦNE electron ring goes from few eV up to 3 keV and is fully used by three existing and two new beamlines. The SINBAD IR beamline, that started its activity in 2003, is the first Italian synchrotron radiation IR beamline and is mainly dedicated to imaging on biological tissues and cells. In 2011 it was upgraded to be able to image living cells at submicrometric spatial resolution.
Diamond is a 3rd Generation 3GeV synchrotron light source which has a 1MeV linear accelerator (Linac), and full energy (1MeV-3 GeV) Booster. Top-Up mode became available in 2008. Diamond has been operating since January 2007, when the first 7 beamlines became operatonal. Since 2018 there are 32 operational beamlines.Diamond has many Special Peformance beamlines including:
- I12 (Joint Engineering, Environmental & Processing) - which can provide tomographic data on large engineering components of up to 2 tonnes, with a scanning area of 1m x 1m under real world conditions - a unique feature in Europe and the world. It has a high intensity beam for undertaking diffraction and imaging experiments.
- I20 (Versatile X-ray Spectroscopy) has a four-bounce monochromator which will allow constant energy resolution and spectral purity of the x-ray beam, in contrast with the other spectroscopy beamlines in Europe. (Operational in 2012).
- I09 (Surfaces & interface structural analysis) is unique in it's ability to analyse samples with both hard and soft X-rays
The third-generation electron storage ring Elettra, operated by the Elettra Laboratory of Sincrotrone Trieste since 1993, feeds 27 beamlines. Researchers from more than 50 different countries, selected by an international committee on the basis of the quality of their scientific proposals, access the facility each year. Since 2010 the Elettra electron storage ring, upgraded with a full-energy injector in 2007, operates in top-up mode for users. Elettra operates routinely at two different electron energies, 2.0 GeV and 2.4 GeV providing photons with energies from a few tenths eV to tenths keV. All of the most important photon (X-ray and IR) based techniques in the areas of spectroscopy, diffraction, scattering, imaging and lithography are present, including also the unique inelastic ultraviolet scattering (IUVS). Versatile experimental stations are maintained at the state-of-the art, offering unique means to carry out outstanding research in diverse fields and disciplines
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), located in Grenoble - France, is a joint facility supported and shared by 22 countries, which started operation in 1994. The ESRF operates the most powerful synchrotron radiation source in Europe. The ESRF is currently engaged in a major upgrade, the EBS (Extremely Brilliant Source) project, centred on the construction of a brand new storage ring - the world's first high-energy fourth-generation synchrotron light source.The first phase of the Upgrade (from 2009 to 2015) achieved the following:
- 19 new and refurbished beamlines with capabilities unique in the world
- Continued world leadership for X-ray beam availability, stability and brilliance
- Major new developments in synchrotron radiation instrumentation
- Study for a revolutionary storage ring
- The construction of a new storage ring, the world's first high-energy fourth-generation synchrotron light source
- The construction of new state-of-the-art beamlines
- An ambitious instrumentation programme (optics, high-performance detectors)
- An intensified big data strategy, designed in order to exploit the enhanced brilliance, coherent flux and performances of the new X-ray synchrotron source
The MAX IV Laboratory is located in Lund (Sweden),and it has been offering synchrotron light to a broad international research community for more than 30 years. In December 2015 the MAX-lab facility was closed and the laboratory has moved to a new site where the MAX IV project is under completion. The MAX IV facility will comprise two low emittance storage rings (1.5 GeV and 3 GeV) and a 3 GeV linac injector.
The novel multi-bend achromat design of the 3 GeV storage ring leads to an emittance below 0.3 nm rad which means that it will become the world's brightest storage ring-based light source.
The 3 GeV linac accelerator will be used for both injection and top up in the storage rings, and as a driver for the Short Pulse Facility (SPF). When used as a short pulse driver it will be able to deliver sub-100-fs pulses with an emittance below 2 mm mrad at 100 Hz.
At present, 14 beamlines are funded for the MAX IV facility: Eight at the 3 GeV ring, five at the 1.5 GeV ring and one at the Short Pulse Facility (SPF) at the MAX IV linac. Different calls to use the MAX IV facility will be open as the beamlines start becoming operational. The first call for external proposals, which was open in December 2016, allowed external users to start using the first MAX IV beamlines in spring 2017.
PETRA III at DESY
PETRA III (Hamburg, Germany), which took up operation in 2009, is the most brilliant storage-ring-based X-ray radiation source in the world. It offers outstanding experimental opportunities for scientists who want to investigate very small samples or require tightly collimated and very short-wavelength X-rays for their experiments.
At present, 21 undulator beamlines (including 3 EMBL beamlines) with about 40 experimental setups are operated in the three PETRA III experimental halls 'Max von Laue', "Ada Yonath" and "Paul P. Ewald". More beamlines will be available to users in the coming years.
PETRA III is operated at 6 GeV nominal energy in top up mode. The vertical beam parameters are close to the diffraction limit and hence are very similar to other high-energy 3rd generation sources. However the major improvement provided by PETRA III is the extreme small horizontal emittance (~0.01 nmrd (rms)). This µm-sized brilliant X-ray beam gives researchers vital advantages. For example, even minuscule material samples can be studied at PETRA III and the arrangement of their atoms precisely determined - or molecular biologists can explore the atomic structure of tiny protein crystals.
PETRA III also opens many different opportunities in the field of materials research. For certain applications, materials researchers need highly energetic photons with high penetration power - for example, to test welding seams or to check production parts for signs of fatigue.
Swiss Light Source
The Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institut is a third-generation synchrotron light source. In the design of SLS a high priority was given to the items quality (high brightness), flexibility (wide wavelength spectrum) and stability (very stable temperature conditions) for the primary electron beam and the secondary photon beams. With an energy of 2.4 GeV, it provides photon beams of high brightness for research in materials science, biology and chemistry.
SLS has eighteen experimental stations (undulators and bending magnets) and seventeen operational beamlines. There are three protein crystallography beam-lines, two of which are partially funded by associations of Swiss pharmaceutical companies.
- A very large spectrum of synchrotron light ranging from infrared light to hard X-rays
- A mixture of straight sections (short, medium and long), allowing an optimal use of a variety of undulators
- undulators with flexible polarization schemes, giving e.g. the possibility to rapidly change the polarization in the kHz range
- Top-up injection, producing a constant beam intensity for experiments
- Individual control of all magnet power supplies, giving optimal flexibility for the optical properties of the storage ring.
SOLARIS is a Polish national research centre located in Kraków. The National Synchrotron Radiation Centre functions under the auspices of the Jagiellonian University. The Centre was built between 2011 and 2014. The SOLARIS synchrotron is the largest scientific research device in Poland. It is also the first and only synchrotron light source in Central Europe. Kraków synchrotron was built using the most modern technologies and following an innovative project designed by specialists from the Swedish MAXIV Laboratory. SOLARIS synchrotron light source has a 550 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) and full energy (1.5 GeV) storage ring.
SOLARIS has currently two operating beamlines (PEEM/XAS with two end-stations, and UARPES with one end-station). After completion, twelve beamlines will be fitted with about twenty end-stations.
SOLEIL is the French national 2,75 GeV third generation synchrotron installation located in the Paris area, and replacing the former LURE which closed in 2003.
The decision to build it has been made in September 2001. The works started a year later and the storage ring started its operation in 2006. The beamlines have been progressively opened to the users and 29 beamlines are currently operational. Topping up injection mode and single bunch are available since 2009, and routinely achieved since 2010. Operation is now reached at 400mA and will be offered to users in 2012 at the level of 500mA.
SOLEIL offers a unique panorama of experiments in surface and material science (with emphasis given on microspectroscopies, high resolution, magnetism, chemistry), environmental and earth science, very dilute species, biology (crystallography, absorption, small angle scattering, fluorescence, IR microscopy). Areas of excellence are time resolved experiment both in X-ray range (diffraction, photoemission) and in the softer energy range (coincidences spectroscopies at ultrahigh resolution), an extensive use of versatile photon polarisations (dichroism studies), fully automated protein crystallography beamlines, a dedicated radioactive elements beamline etc. Special emphasis will be given towards cultural heritage material studies with a dedicated platform (IPANEMA) in construction, as well as a global approach in life science from the molecule to cells and tissue investigation. Imaging at SOLEIL is already present on numerous beamlines and will be reinforced in the very next future.
The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a Directorate of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Stanford University. Located in Menlo Park, California, SLAC is a multi-program national laboratory exploring frontier questions in photon science, astrophysics, biochemistry, material science, particle physics and accelerator research.
SSRL utilizes x-rays produced by its accelerator, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is a 3-GeV, high-brightness third generation storage ring operating with high reliability and low emittance. SSRL runs with 500 mA in top-off mode, during which the beam current is kept constant with injection of electrons into the ring every five minutes.
SSRL offers more than 30 experimental stations, supporting a variety of techniques including: macromolecular crystallography, soft and hard x-ray microscopy, microXAS imaging, x-ray scattering and diffraction, photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies.
The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of the newest, most advanced third generation synchrotron radiation facilities in the world. As a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility, NSLS-II enables its growing user community to study materials with nanoscale resolution and exquisite sensitivity by providing world-class capabilities. NSLS-II’s beamlines and experimental stations offer unique, cutting-edge research tools, including high-throughput robot-driven sample processing, coherent x-ray scattering, unprecedented energy resolution, or hard x-ray microscopy with nanometer spatial resolution. The 29 beamlines are organized into six scientific programs, based on the research techniques they offer: Complex Scattering, Hard X-ray Scattering & Spectroscopy, Imaging & Microscopy, Soft X-ray Scattering & Spectroscopy, Structural Biology.
The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) is responsible for the operation of the only synchrotron light source in Latin America. The second generation light source UVX, inaugurated in 1997, as the first synchrotron light source in the Southern Hemisphere, has ended its operation for users in August 2019. Sirius, the new Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, will be one of the first fourth-generation synchrotron lightsources of the world. It is planned to put Brazil on the leading position in the production of synchrotron light and is designed to be the brightest of all the equipment in its energy class. Thirteen beamlines are under construction; from October 20th, 2020, researchers of any field are invited to submit research proposals to use the MANACÁ (Macromolecular, micro and nano crystallography) beamline.
The Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is a “third-generation” synchrotron light source under construction in Allan (Jordan). It will be the Middle East's first major international research centre.
It is a cooperative venture by scientists and governments of the region set up on the model of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). It is being developed under the auspices of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) following the formal approval given for this by the Organization's Executive Board (164th session, May 2002).
It is an autonomous intergovernmental organization at the service of its Members which have full control over its development, exploitation and financial matters.
SESAME will both:
Foster scientific and technological excellence in the Middle East and neighbouring countries (and prevent or reverse the brain drain) by enabling world-class scientific research in subjects ranging from biology, archaeology and medical sciences through basic properties of materials science, physics, chemistry, and life sciences; and
Build scientific and cultural bridges between diverse societies, and contribute to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science.
As an intergovernmental scientific and technological centre of excellence open to all scientists from the Middle East and elsewhere, SESAME will serve as a propeller for the scientific, technical, and economic development of the region and will strengthen collaboration in science.
SESAME will be a widely-available 'user facility'. Scientists, including graduate students, from universities and research institutes will typically visit the Centre for a week or two, twice or three times a year, to carry out experiments, frequently in collaboration with scientists from other centres/countries, and then return home to analyze the data they have obtained.